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2015-12-30 16:19:11|  ࣺ ĬϷ |  ǩ |ٱ |ֺС 

  LOFTER ҵƬ  |

Section I Use of English

Directions

Read the following text Choose the best words for each numbered blank and mark A B C or D on the ANSWER SHEET 10 points

Happy people work differently Theyre more productive more creative and willing to take greater risks And new research suggests that happiness might influence 1 firms work too

Companies located in place with happier people invest more according to a recent research paper 2  firms in happy places spend more on R&Dresearch and developmentThats because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investment for the future

The researchers wanted to know if the 4 and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would 5 the way companies invested So they compared U.S cities average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas

7 enough firms investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 But it is really happiness thats linked to investment or could something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D To find out the researches controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest like size industry  and sales-and-and for indicators that a place was 11 to live in like growth in wages or population They link between happiness and investment generally 12 even after accounting for these things

The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms which the authors 13 to less confined decision making process and the possible presence of younger and less 14 managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment The relationship was 15 stronger in places where happiness was spread more 16 Firms seem to invest more in places

17 this doesnt prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view the authors believe it at least 18 at that possibility Its not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help 19 how executives think about the future It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward Cthinking and creative and 20 R&D more than the average said one researcher

1 [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when

2 [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion

3 [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary

4 [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism

5 [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change

6 [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed

7 [A] sure [B] odd [C] unfortunate [D] often

8 [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered

9 [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize

10 [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods

11 [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable

12 [A] resumed [B] held [C] emerged [D] broke

13 [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D] compare

14 [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D] experienced

15 [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never

16 [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally

17 [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since

18 [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes

19 [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share

20 [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send act

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions

Read the following four texts Answer the questions below each text by choosing A B C or D Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET 40 points

Text 1

Its true that high-school coding classes arent essential for learning computer science in college Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses said Tom Cortina the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellons School of Computer Science

However Cortina said early exposure is beneficial When younger kids learn computer science they learn that its not just a confusing endless string of letters and numbers C but a tool to build apps or create artwork or test hypotheses Its not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap Cortina said

Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away

The Flatiron School where people pay to learn programming started as one of the many coding bootcamps thats become popular for adults looking for a career change The high-schoolers get the same curriculum but we try to gear lessons toward things theyre interested in said Victoria Friedman an instructor For instance one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood

The students in the Flatiron class probably wont drop out of high school and build the next Facebook Programming languages have a quick turnover so the Ruby on Rails language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market But the skills they learn C how to think logically through a problem and organize the results C apply to any coding languagesaid Deborah Seehorn an education consultant for the state of North Carolina

Indeed the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets in their offices in their homes Cfor the rest of their lives The younger they learn how computers think how to coax the machine into producing what they want Cthe earlier they learn that they have the power to do that Cthe better

21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______

A complete future job training

B remodel the way of thinking

C formulate logical hypotheses

D perfect artwork production

22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers  Flatiron has considered their________

A experience

B interest

C career prospects

D academic backgrounds

23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________

A  help students learn other computer languages

B have to be upgraded when new technologies come

C need improving when students look for jobs

D enable students to make big quick money

24.According to the last paragraph Flatiron students are expected to ______

A bring forth innovative computer technologies

B stay longer in the information technology industry

C become better prepared for the digitalized world

D compete with a future army of programmers

25.The word coaxLine4Para.6 is closest in meaning to ________

A persuade

B frighten

C misguide

D challenge

Text 2

Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslandsonce lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States But just some 22000 birds remain today occupying about 16% of the species historic range

The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service USFWSdecided to formally list the bird as threatened The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe Some environmentalists however were disappointed They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as endangered a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats But Ashe and others argued that the threatened tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new potentially less confrontational conservations approaches In particular they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chickens habitat

Under the plan for example the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill harm or disturb the bird as long as they had signed a rangewide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat Negotiated by USFWS and the states the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67000 birds over the next 10 yearsAnd it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies WAFWA a coalition of state agencies the job of monitoring progress Overall the idea is to let states remain in the driver s seat for managing the species Ashe said

Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan and at least a dozen industry groups four states and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly doesnt go far enough The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction  says biologist Jay Lininger

26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____

[A]its drastically decreased population

[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage

[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists

[D]the insistence of private landowners

27.The threatened tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____

[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure

[B]would involve fewer agencies in action

[C]granted less federal regulatory power

[D]went against conservation policies

28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____

[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation

[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat

[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job

[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations

29.According to Ashe the leading role in managing the species in______

[A]the federal government

[B]the wildlife agencies

[C]the landowners

[D]the states

30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______

[A]industry groups

[B]the win-win rhetoric

[C]environmental groups

[D]the plan under challenge

Text 3

That everyones too busy these days is a clich But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully Theres never any time to read

What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques dont seem sufficient The webs full of articles offering tips on making time to read Give up TV or Carry a book with you at all times But in my experience using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesnt work Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else youre so exhausted that a challenging books the last thing you need The modern mind Tim Parks a novelist and criticwrites is overwhelmingly inclined toward communicationIt is not simply that one is interrupted it is that one is actually inclined to interruption Deep reading requires not just time but a special kind of time which cant be obtained merely by becoming more efficient

In fact becoming more efficient is part of the problem Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal Immersive reading by contrast depends on being willing to risk inefficiency goallessness even time-wasting Try to slot it as a to-do list item and youll manage only goal-focused reading-useful sometimes but not the most fulfilling kind The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time and we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles days hours minutes as they pass for if they get by without being filled we will have wasted them No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book

So what does work Perhaps surprisingly scheduling regular times for reading Youd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set but in fact Eberle notes such ritualistic behaviour helps us step outside times flow into soul time You could limit distractions by reading only physical books or on single-purpose e-readers Carry a book with you at all times can actually worktoo-providing you dip in often enough so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business before dropping back down On a really good day it no longer feels as if youre making time to read but just reading and making time for everything else

31 The usual time-management techniques dont work because 

[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind

[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading

[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them

[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

32 The empty bottles metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to 

[A] update their to-do lists

[B] make passing time fulfilling

[C] carry their plans through

[D] pursue carefree reading

33 Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps 

[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set

[B] develop online reading habits

[C] promote ritualistic reading

[D] achieve immersive reading

34 Carry a book with you at all timescan work if 

[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day

[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with

[C] you are able to drop back to business after reading

[D] time can be evenly split for reading and business

35 The best title for this text could be 

[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading

[B] How to Find Time to Read

[C] How to Set Reading Goals

[D] How to Read Extensively

Text 4

Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success a latest poll has found

Across generational lines Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life including getting married having children owning a home and retiring in their sixties But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it

Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home the survey found

From career to community and family these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American lifefrom consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics

Young and old converge on one key point Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations Whlie younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today big majorities in both groups believe those just getting started in life face a tougher a good-paying job starting a family managing debt and finding affordable housing

Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today Schneider a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college Even now that he is working steadily he said I cant afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen Looking back he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was youngI still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didnt have college degreesSchneider saidI dont think people are capable of that anymore

36 One cross-generation mark of a successful life is 

[A] trying out different lifestyles

[B] having a family with children

[C] working beyond retirement age

[D] setting up a profitable business

37 It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to 

[A] favor a slower life pace

[B] hold an occupation longer

[C] attach importance to pre-marital finance

[D] give priority to childcare outside the home

38 The priorities and expectations defined by the young will 

[A] become increasingly clear

[B] focus on materialistic issues

[C] depend largely on political preferences

[D] reach almost all aspects of American life

39 Both young and old agree that 

[A] good-paying jobs are less available

[B] the old made more life achievements

[C] housing loans today are easy to obtain

[D] getting established is harder for the young

40 Which of the following is true about Schneider

[A] He found a dream job after graduating from college

[B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success

[C] His parents good life has little to do with a college degree

[D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging

Part B

Directions

Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs 41-45 There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET 10 points

A Be silly

B Have fun

C Ask for help

D Express your emotions

E Dont overthink it

F Be easily pleased

G Notice things

Act Your Shoe Size Not Your Age

1 As adults it seems that were constantly pursuing happiness often with mixed results Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they dont need self-help books or therapy Instead they look after their wellbeing instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups Perhaps its time to learn a few lessons from them

41___________

2 What does a child do when hes sad He cries When hes angry He shouts Scared Probably a bit of both As we grow up we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and dont dictate our behaviours which is in many ways a good thing But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions especially negative ones Thats about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill What we feel appropriately and then-again like children-move on

42__________

A couple of Christmases ago my youngest stepdaughter who was 9 years old at the time got a Superman T-shirt for ChristmasIt cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed and couldnt bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content but the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels Instead being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing

43__________

Have you ever noticed how much children laugh If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies increase good hormones like endorphins improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of fighting off infection All of which would of course have a positive effect on our happiness levels

44__________

The problem with being a grownup is that theres an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work mortgage payments figuring out what to cook for dinner But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and its important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love Those things might be social sporting creative or completely random dancing around the living room anyone-it doesnt matter so long as theyre enjoyable and not likely to have negative side effects such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if youre on a tight budget

45__________

Having said all of the above its important to add that we shouldnt try too hard to be happy Scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness And in that once more we need to look to the example of our children to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live

Section III Translation

Directions

Translate the following text into Chinese Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET 15 points

The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors The reason for this is simple The longer you stay in the store the more stuff youll see and the more stuff you see the more youll buy And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff The average supermarket according to the Food Marketing Institute carries some 44000 different items and many carry tens of thousands more The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload According to brain-scan experiments the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us After about 40 minutes of shopping most people stop struggling to be rationally selective and instead began shopping emotionallywhich is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying

Section IV Writing

Part A

47 Directions

Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend Jack wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation Write him a reply to

1 thank him and

2 give you advice

You should write about 100 on the ANSWER SHEET

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter Use Li Ming instead

Do not write the address 10 points

Part B

48 Directions

Write an essay based on the chart below In your writing you should

1 interpret the chart and

2 give your comments

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET 15 points


 
 
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